"Activity space" has been used to examine how people's habitual movements interact with their environment, and can be used to examine accessibility to healthcare opportunities. Spatial Concepts—Define spatial concepts including absolute and relative location, space, place, flows, distance decay, time-space compression, and patterns. ), The Spatial Turn: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (London, 2009), 1. This geography quiz features ten satellite images each showing an anthropogenic activity. Joyce proposes breaking ‘out of this circularity and banality’ by taking the linguistic turn ‘seriously’, that is by ‘questioning received categories of the “social” ’.20 Kelly introduces to the debate the perspective of women’s history, stating that ‘reading historical material for information about women automatically means reading against the grain’; otherwise, women would be left out of most historical discussion.21 Kelly offers another option: to read texts for their language and lexicon, but also to look into their context and intertextuality. Felix Driver, for example, argued that the voyages of travellers like Henry Morton Stanley, Livingstone, Richard Burton and Samuel Baker, often with the support of geographical societies, helped to chart out distant territories. Spatial distribution refers to the set of geographic observations depicting the importance of the behavior of an extraordinary phenomenon or characteristic across different locations on the earth's surface. Outside of geography, little critical Importantly, he recognizes that borders are arbitrary, but he still accepts and asserts that the category of Mitteleuropa is valid.56 The question is not whether it exists, but what factor unites and defines it. Further, naturally occurring barriers of terrain often made communal management impossible.49 Instead, Jones finds the ‘heart-beat’ of rural society in the parish.50 The community in the southern Massif Central, Jones argues, ‘was a spiritual or rather psychological condition’ that ‘implied a communion of the living and a communion of the living with the dead’, with the church, the cemetery and the bell tower figuring centrally as reference points.51 The rural community, according to Jones, gathered in the cemetery ‘around the tombs of their ancestors in order to consult them, commune with them and pray for them’.52 The community, then, is a sentiment ‘emancipated from the constraints of physical space’ that cannot be defined by the borders of a village, but instead existed as ‘a complex of values and beliefs which can best be analysed at the level of mentalités’.53 While, for Soboul, the community was a space determined by geography and mode of production, for Jones it was a place bound to its inhabitants by sentiment, psychology and history. ch. Our contribution to the activity space literature lies in the efforts to provide an enhanced time geography based activity space delineation approach. It stresses the geographic way of organizing and analyzing information pertaining to the location, distribution, pattern, and interactions of the varied physical and human … In doing so, we recognize texts as ‘an over-flavoured broth of dubious provenance, whose precise quantities of ingredients must be established, and process of culinary preparation determined’.22 In this way, the meaning of historical texts exists both discursively (within the text) and contextually (from without). The spatial structure of activity space pertains to where people choose to undertake their daily activities. This relates to human geography because it has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on. It is the commonplace daily movements we make offset by the occasional trip out of the area. Yi-Fu Tuan (2001), the Chinese American human geographer recognized for his definitions of space and place, wrote that people of all ages Beides ist im Zeitalter der unaufhaltsamen Internationalisierung der Wissenschaften wenig empfehlenswert. By examining spatial history in Past and Present (a journal with an explicitly social character) I show that, while the study of human geography turned away from social concerns from the 1940s to the 1960s, it was concern with social history that made the space of Past and Present a place for spatial studies. 155 (May 1997). While Johnson studies maps and the context of their creation, in ‘The Geography of Revolution in Ireland, 1917–1923’ Peter Hart creates them.82 Hart focuses on the ‘uneven geography’ of the revolution of 1917–23 in Ireland, showing that the violence of the revolution (which he measures in terms of ‘those killed or wounded by bullets or bombs’83 on a county-to-county basis) was regional, not national.84 To carry out his study, Hart harvested data from a vast array of sources, including constabulary reports, Royal Irish Constabulary tabulations, military reports, casualty lists and several newspapers.85 In doing so, he is able to apply new data to older hypotheses, including those offered by David Fitzpatrick in a Past and Present article published in 1978.86, Hart maps out the violence of the revolution in several ways. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it.They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment, and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. It is rooted in research concerned with human activity participation and mobility that are defined in space and time. 39 (Apr. Critical geography is based upon the principle that questions about spatial relations, which refer to how an object located within a particular space relates to another object, are important because political behaviour is embedded in socio-political structures based on ideas about space. Human Geography is the study of all human based phenomena and activities as guided through observation. 171 (May 2001). GEOGRAPHIC SCALES used in research: Human … First, it emphasizes that geography is a methodology. (Stanford, 2010), 6, at (accessed 15 Jan. 2016). Maddykinns. Relph stresses that there can only be a ‘sense of place’ when the bond between people and place is ‘deep-rooted’.14 Hubbard summarizes the distinction between materialist and humanist accounts in this way: Suggesting that (bounded) places are fundamental in providing a sense of belonging for those who live in them, humanistic perspectives propose a definite but complex relationship between the character of specific places and the cultural identities of those who inhabit them. This tendency is not limited, however, to the early years. While their boundaries are looser than formal regions, the activities defining them are very real and occur in a set space. It emphasizes that spatial history can serve as methodology, approach and object. He discards culture, religion, politics and economics as categories that could define the region.57 Instead, he finds that geographical studies reveal ‘a transitional zone of mountains, basins and counter-flowing river systems, shaping a pattern of ethnic splintering implausible in the vast plains of the continental east or extensive peninsulas of the Atlantic west’.58 These geographic formations funnelled migrations, exposed groups in open spaces and led to ‘attempts of a clutch of small and medium-sized peoples to assert their identities against more powerful neighbours on their flanks’. In preschool and early primary classrooms, geography is often viewed traditionally, focusing on activities that build geographic skills, such as mapmaking. Cognitive Mapping. Geographic space is composed of natural elements such as vegetation, soil, mountains and bodies of water, as well as social or cultural elements, that is, the economic and social organization of people and their values and customs. SDE, MCP, etc.) ... Activity space: space allotted for a certain industry or activity: 298767345: Okey offers an exhaustive survey of European debates on Mitteleuropa throughout the twentieth century. generalized map: Though some had turned to social interests, the Second World War, the Cold War and McCarthyism in the United States presented significant obstacles. Humangeographie, einer der beiden Oberbereiche der Geographie, die sich in die Physische Geographie oder Naturgeographie und eben die Humangeographie gliedert. As Phil Hubbard states in his article ‘Space/Place’, ‘the key question about space and place is not what they are, but what they do’.3, Historiographical studies of human geography outline a disjointed narrative: geography emerged in the early nineteenth century, characterized by environmental determinism and historicism.4 It became an arm of European imperialism, and fell into a crisis of disciplinary definition until the publication of Richard Hartshorne’s ‘Nature of Geography’ in 1939.5 Hartshorne urged geographers to focus on spatial distributions rather than time. In a generation which, as Friedrich Mienecke demonstrated, has history in its marrow, and for which an historical mode of thought is second nature, we believe that it is to history that the great majority of thinking men and women look for strength and understanding.27. For more on Braudel, see E.J.H., ‘Notes’, Past and Present, no. The question of space and place in geographical knowledge is ultimately not just about whether the question of “where” matters in the way that “when” does in explaining “how” and even “why” something happens. The sociology of space is a sub-discipline of sociology that mostly borrows from theories developed within the discipline of geography, including the sub fields of human geography, economic geography, and feminist geography.The "sociology" of space examines the social and material constitution of spaces. Yet, there is no overwhelming drive towards quantitative approaches or even mapping software that requires specific technical knowledge.122 Instead, the articles on space, place and scale in Past and Present have continually provoked their readers to consider how we relate to the space around us, how we make of it our own place, what hierarchies we create within it, how we imagine and relate it to other places, and how we represent it to others. Martina Löw, ‘O spatial turn: para uma sociologia do espaço’, Tempo social: revista de sociologia da USP, xxv, 2 (2013), 17. Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. 1, 2003 ARTICLE Race and place: social space in the production of human kinds RONALD R. SUNDSTROM Department of Philosophy, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA Abstract Recent discussions of human … Eric J. Hobsbawm’s work in this early period deserves special mention, as his work focused on social processes that crossed national borders, giving more importance to the role of class than to the national space within which it existed.29. The centrality of central Europe, he shows, has nothing to do with its location to the east or west of other regions. Ibid., 172. What scholars now refer to as ‘the spatial turn’ is ‘the perception that social change can no longer be satisfactorily explained without a reconceptualization of categories referring to the spatial component of social life’.24 While many scholars have limited their discussions of the spatial turn to methodological questions inspired by the use of geographic information system technologies for the study of human geography and history, the turn towards spatial study also focuses on how spatial meaning is constructed and how space is represented. These articles often expose this tendency within their title, including the name of the nation along with an indication of the period studied. In each case, the metropole attempted to industrialize the domesticated insects and their production ‘through radical simplifications of complex ecological process’. In ‘Parish, Seigneurie and the Community of Inhabitants in Southern Central France during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, P. M. Jones also focuses on the notion of the French rural ‘community’.44 Jones attributes the weakness of prior studies of the community to ‘economic and geographical determinism’ and interpretations of France based only on studies of the north or north-east.45 Like Soboul, Jones points to geographers and ethnographers, especially those who offer ‘important insights into the mental domain’.46 With this in mind, he turns to the southern Massif Central in south central France, describing it in terms of its physical geography, economy, patterns of human settlement and demographics.47 Considering the region’s varied geography and sparse settlement, and offering convincing evidence from letters and travel diaries, Jones finds that the contours of the community in the southern Massif Central did not necessarily follow ‘ecclesiastical, nor seigneurial, nor natural boundaries’.48 Jones rejects the notion that the rural community was defined by commonly owned property, showing that in the ‘provinces of the centre’, while sometimes lands were communally managed, they were rarely communally owned. In preschool and early primary classrooms, geography is often viewed traditionall… Furthermore, nosy landlords often found clever ways to enter legally, or at least view, the rooms they let.111 Homes had their own hierarchical geographies, as ‘Certain rooms became synonymous with small incomes and struggle’.112 Among the household residents, servants had the least personal space, often sleeping on temporary, movable bedding and guarding locked boxes carrying all of their worldly belongings.113 At the boundary of the household, once over the threshold and at one’s locked box, the key was fundamental to securing each person a minimal amount of private space.114. Cited in Hubbard, ‘Space/Place’, 42–3. In subsequent national battles during the 1830s, the ‘Iquichano’ military achieved national glory, changing their designation from the traitorous ‘Iquichanos’ to ‘brave Iquichanos’, and the ‘Iquichano’ peasants finally received exemption from paying tribute.68 Examining the history of one village, Méndez-Gastelumendi shows that Indians migrated out of their communities to join the ‘Iquicha’, who were exempt from tribute. In 1991 Lawrence Stone opened a discussion on postmodernism and history in a closing note. Thrift, N (1996) Spatial Formations. Edward W. Soja, Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places (Cambridge, Mass., 1996), 56–7. In other words, space within the pages of Past and Present has presented itself as an approach to history, an object of study and a methodology (employed to learn more about a distinct object of study). a grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance, people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion, government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase, the set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time, the movement of people, goods and ideas within and across geographic space, the level at which a national population ceases to grow, migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city, an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834), the number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life, a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. Henri LeFebvre, The Production of Space, trans. • Human Geography by McGraw Hill – Chapter 2 • The Cultural Landscape by Pearson – Chapter 2 • Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture by Wiley Press – Chapter 2 This GIS map has been cross-referenced to material in sections of chapters from these texts. Courtney J Campbell, Space, Place and Scale: Human Geography and Spatial History in Past and Present, Past & Present, Volume 239, Issue 1, May 2018, Pages e23–e45, https://doi.org/10.1093/pastj/gtw006. Introduction to Human Geography Chapter 1 What is Human Geography? For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. We learn about the values and shape of a community. Postmodern scholars emphasized the ‘slipperiness and instability of language’ and the impossibility of universal definitions for space and place.16. Zierhofer says that traditional geography took space as a container, as a cause, and as a consequence of activities. Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. 6 (Nov. 1954). Term. Waldseemüller worked in collaboration with Matthias Ringmann and Walther Ludd, who ‘all placed their explications in the well-established system of cosmography, that is, the mathematical description of the universe’.76 While cartographers relied for ‘empirical information’ on Amerigo Vespucci’s travel narrative Four Voyages and his Mundus novus letter (both of which have since been accepted as forgeries), such data was subordinated to mathematical models set forth in Ptolemy’s Cosmography, which Waldseemüller and Ringmann revised in 1513.77 The figure of Vespucci was prominent in the map drawn in 1507, but his ‘accomplishments were seen as simply part of the whole enterprise of discovery’ and ‘did not in any way strain the mathematical framework of Ptolemaic cosmography’.78 The choice of Vespucci’s name for the map, then, was due not to his intellectual, innovative insights (as some scholars have claimed), but to the voyager type he represented and the accessibility of his texts at a time when ‘information was a resource both highly prized and difficult to acquire’.79. What is the geographic perspective? What I do in geography is not space meaning ‘outer space’, or space meaning ‘atomic space’, or any of that; it is space as that dimension of the world in which we live. Activity space in human geography is the location where regular behaviors occur. Human geography focuses on the role that human play in the world and the effects that human activities have on the Earth. Summarized in Barraclough, ‘Metropolis and Macrocosm’, 81. globalization: Definition. Human geography is still practiced, and more specialized fields within it have developed to further aid in the study of cultural practices and human activities as they relate spatially to the world. The activity space approach proposed in this paper has great potential to be applied to these new data sources. Common terms and phrases . I am grateful to each of these people and institutions. GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE: IT DEFINES SPACE ORGANIZED BY SOCIETY-HUMAN GROUPS IN THEIR INTERRELATION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT. The articles were published from 1954 to 2014, though all but two appeared after 1980, reflecting the linguistic and spatial turns. After a brief historiographical presentation of human geography, space and place, this article outlines ten Past and Present articles that, in some way, approach space, place and scale in their study. Ibid., 131. Through spatial history, we learn about the routes of commodities and the structure of geographical knowledge. in human movement and migration studies, a measure of an individual's perceived satisfaction for approval of a place in its social, economic, or environmental attributes. His concise proposition spurred a four-part response. See, for example, E. J. Hobsbawm, ‘The Machine Breakers’, Past and Present, no. Importantly, a common characteristic is that of dominant German influence over this region. Of course, private space stands in contrast to public space. Mapping the Black Death’ David C. Mengel studies maps that have represented the progression and geographic reach of the Black Death alongside the texts that accompanied them.94 Mengel traces how the scholarly consensus that Bohemia was left unscathed by the Black Death developed through ‘the most influential account of plague in Bohemia’: a map.95 In 1962 Élisabeth Carpentier published an article on the plague in Annales.96 She provided a map that ‘has shaped all subsequent discussion of the Black Death in Bohemia’.97 The map shows the march of the plague across the Continent in six-month increments and identifies cities that were ‘partly or entirely spared by the plague’, including Milan, Nuremberg and Liège, parts of the Pyrenees, sections of the Netherlands and large portions of east central Europe. Some of these disturbances are recent while other images show the remains of human activity etched onto … Yet, while Hart’s article (along with Gregory P. Downs and Scott Nesbit’s Mapping Occupation project, the maps provided by the University of Delaware’s Colored Conventions project and the Spatial History project at Stanford University, among many others)93 demonstrates that historical inquiry can benefit from the inclusion of datasets and mapping technologies, spatial history and the study of maps need not intimidate the technophobe. 137 (Nov. 1992), 102. Human geography focuses on understand processes about human populations, settlements, economics, transportation, recreation and tourism, religion, politics, social and cultural traditions, human migration, agriculture, and urbanization. Everyone has a different understanding of the world. More than ever, integrative sciences, like Geography, are essential components for understanding the world and all that is in it. Just as, in Nigel Thrift’s words, space is the ‘fundamental stuff of human geography’, time, one might add, is the ‘stuff’ of history. 211 (May 2011). Further, this new view saw no distinction between European and American histories, recognizing instead that the European age cannot be studied in isolation. In the words of Hubbard, in the materialist accounts, ‘place emerges as a particular form of space, one that is created through acts of naming as well as through the distinctive activities and imaginings associated with particular social spaces’.8 Building on Lefebvre’s work, a number of studies reference what has been termed ‘thirdspace’, that is, geographical imaginaries, or space that is both real and imagined.9 Another important Marxist interpreter of space and place is David Harvey, who points out a paradox: globalization depends on a sense of place, because history, culture and landscape are ‘crucial in perpetuating special processes of capital accumulation’.10. A. Soboul, ‘The French Rural Community in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, Past and Present, no. Since traversing space requires time and many activities require the co-presence of individuals or presence at a particular location, not all projects can be realized. See also Yi-Fu Tuan, Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience (Minneapolis, 1977), esp. This fact has had negative consequences for geographical theory, methodology and application. Activity space: the space within which daily activity occurs: Chain migration: the social … Geographic space is composed of natural elements such as vegetation, soil, mountains and bodies of water, as well as social or cultural elements, that is, the economic and social organization of people and their values and customs. Changes like these have triggered climate change, soil erosion, poor air quality, and undrinkable water. One example would be a television station's viewing area. Personal space. Primary school resources for maths lessons, science lessons, English lessons, geography lessons, history lessons and ICT lessons. Examples: Neighborhood – Urban Area – Metropolitan Area – Region – Nation – World. i–ii (editors’ intro.). Barraclough dedicates most of the article to a presentation of Walter Prescott Webb’s book The Great Frontier, recognizing it as a ‘bold attempt’ to examine modern history through the frontier created by the arrival of Europeans in the Americas in 1492 and the centuries of interaction generated by this encounter.32 For Webb, it was Christopher Columbus’ voyage to the New World that made the Renaissance and the Reformation possible, and it was the ‘windfalls’, or commodities, produced by the European exploitation of this frontier that created the foundation for the Industrial Revolution, making the frontier ‘the matrix of the modern world’.33 Barraclough does not fully agree with Webb’s conclusions, and spends the bulk of the article offering detailed criticism; yet, he does agree with Webb on one main point: that the conquest of the frontier brought the world together as one, binding the history of modern Europe to that of the Americas.34 Barraclough argues that, as the European age came to a close, the world became ‘frontierless’, creating an environment within which fascism and dictators, specifically Hitler, arose. Christine R. Johnson’s ‘Renaissance German Cosmographers and the Naming of America’ also takes up the subject of place naming, but does so to show how Europeans created knowledge about what came to be called ‘America’, arguing that ‘the reality of a New World’ was founded within the context of cartographic, mathematical and scientific data, theories and conventions circulating throughout Europe in the sixteenth century.75 Johnson studies the naming of America through maps created in the sixteenth century, beginning with the map drawn in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller that first gave America its name.

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